Monday, 23 January 2017

Tips And Examples On the Design House Plots of Land Narrow

If you live in a densely populated urban and many migrants from other regions, you certainly will not be familiar with the sights of the tenement which is often seen in the middle of urban areas.
Yes, tenement is a business that can be said promising newcomers to the city with abundant. So many businessman who tried his luck in the field proferti denounce this one.
Terraced house itself is a house built in rows with one wall attached to one another. This terraced house was built for rent are usually a lot in the interest of the employees and married couples.In addition to more efficient, tenement also have more privacy when compared to boarding house which is located in a house with rooms lined.As kotribusi future home to the reader, this time admin will give you tips and examples tenement design with minimal land are certainly many in the drill by contracting. How to ? everything will be missed clear after you read this article to finish.Top tip design a terraced house in the narrow land Build a tenement with designs that are customized to the wishes of the contracting is a very important thing you notice when you first determine your design tenement. However, in addition to the availability of land also should consider. Perhaps those of you who have ample land it will not be a big problem. But, for those of you who own land with minimal size will certainly be a little difficult.Rotating the idea to make tenement comfortable, fully-equipped, and well worth staying in the narrow land is unlikely to be easy. Here are tips and tricks to design a terraced house in a narrow area:

1. Build a terraced house 2 floors
The first tip that you can use is to build a 2 storey terraced house. This will greatly help you who have a narrow field. You can have more tenements even in a small area.Even though the development would probably require a greater cost, however this will be proportional to your income later. Because you have more rows of tenements and the chances of getting any contracting more you can certainly imagine.

2. Give full facilities while still saving land
As a tenement which is dedicated to the immigrants who look for temporary housing, of course, you must provide complete facilities and comfort of a quality so that the contacting can feel at home and are reluctant to move to another place.
Facilities that must be present in any row house is the living room, family room, bathroom and kitchen. to save the land, you can make one room serve to the living room once a family room.
As for the bathroom can be placed in the kitchen. provide electric lighting and water sufficient capacity so that the contracting was comfortable for a long stay in a tenement that you provide.

3. Maintain the cleanliness and comfort
Whether they are in the small area, do not let you turn into a tenement slum tenement and not comfortable to live in. Keep it clean by sending a janitor for transporting household waste on the site.
In addition, for the convenience of perhatiakan also house paint on the wall of your tenement. Immediately replace if already looks shabby.

Design examples terraced house in a narrow area
After learning the tips and tricks, of course, you are also curious about the tenement design examples for narrow land. Giving this example as an illustration to you who are looking for ideas for home design plot.
Here is an example of the design of the tenement to a narrow area that could admin recommend:

1. minimalist 2-storey terraced house
Tenement with a minimalist concept is kind of a tenement that was in the search by contracting. Minimalist style featuring modern simple design but still will keep tenement of ancient design and rundown.
Selection of paint colors in the design of the tenement to be in sesauikan. Choose bright colors to give the impression area eg white, yellow or light gray. In addition, the provision of a fence in her yard also is in need to provide to the contracting pripacy.
Development that created two levels of deliberately created to anticipate the narrow land. By doing so, you will still have a lot of tenement even on land that is not too broad.

2. Tenement simple
Because the land is narrow, tenement building with simple design and concept seems to be a very appropriate choice. By design simple terraced house, a narrow area that you have to be turned into a tenement cozy and comfortable to live in.
The concept is simple you can see in the above example can be seen from the designs are far from luxury. Do not forget to keep it clean so that although modest terraced house you will still provide comfort.
That's a little explanation about the tips and examples tenement design for narrow land. May be useful for you who are looking for a business idea in the field of the tenement. Remember! tipsnya you only need to provide the needed comfort contracting. good luck

Tiny House Design Complete With Its Unique interior

In the modern era with a pretty tough job once seemed difficult for us to build a house with desian that such desire, then we must look for other solutions, including by making a small house and minimalist.
The house is the small size does not mean not enough decent and less comfortable for us to live, although the size of the house is not too extensive we can maximize the space that is not too narrow, some way to make this is by using the interior space is not too time consuming.
Lately the minimalist model homes is becoming a trend among people in Indonesia, the reason, the cost of which is issued to build a small house minimalism is not terlu large and with a model that is unique to make models of this small house has a special attraction for its owner, especially if arranged with good and tidy from the front yard of the house, layout like a kitchen, a bedroom, a living room and knickknacks that is unique in pairs in small house, and do not forget also the provision of wall paint color the solid house can also affect the look of a home apart of view we must also pay attention to other things, such as to the lighting that comes into the house, air ventilation and do not forget to clean and tidy the house.

The kitchen room small house unique
The kitchen is in use somewhere to cook would be easy dirty, therefore, to create a kitchen space that is clean then we must start from the design of the kitchen when the wash will be easier, such as trash that is always there in the kitchen, interior in pairs in kitchen interior is easy to clean and make storage places are located and neatly arranged.

Bedroom space playhouse
For the bedroom seems to us to be a smart-smart narrow rooms, because the size of a small bedroom house would have been very minimal, so the rooms are not cramped then we can make some way below.

  -
Select the items in need 

Usually one of the causes of the bedrooms into a narrow is because the furniture and some other electronic perlenakapn. We recommend saving only items that are likely not in perluakn.

  -
Utilizing under the mattress 

Under the mattress which are usually empty can you use to store various items that you normally use at certain times, to perform such it will look a little more room outside.

  -
Utilizing room wall 

The bedroom walls you can also take advantage of, can to make cabinets outboard usually used to store books or other items.

Interior unique playhouse 

The interior design tampakanya are things that can not be separated from the design of the house is good for the small size or to the size of the luxury homes, especially for a small house appears that not all the interior design can be installed in the house of that size by reason of minimal space, we can choose some interior design is not too consuming too much space. For example can be seen in the interior design below.

 Tips playhouse unique design
 Petite size so that the house could be more comfortable to live in it could apply some home design tips below.

    
High roof 

Small house made extensive use of land that is not too broad cause home space is not too large and spacious house to give the impression it can make higher home roof it made the atmosphere more like home is spacious.
    
Reduce bulkhead 

Blocking the room in a house tersbut make the house seem cramped, therefore subtract divider between the room.
   
Coloration
In order to impress more luxurious then we can choose the color of paint bright.
    
Light 

The lighting in the home is very important in addition to comfortable lighting from the outside can make homes healthier and look more spacious.
    
Furniture proper

 Due to the limitations of the roar of the interior, such as chairs, bookshelves, tables and others must be adjusted to the outside of the tiny house.

Biggest home and Ultimate in the World

Everyone must have a dream can have their own home especially for newly married couples. Staying at-law is less convenient, especially when forced to sign. Diligent pay monthly but the edges remain just not your own. Although many mortgage deals still headache nutmeg barbie find upfront, even when forced to borrow money for decades automatic cost of living should be 'pressed'. Ok, we have done first talks the issue.
Below are the home of the largest and most luxurious in the world with the highest price, to be sure the owner is not an ordinary person, a minimum living as the owner of the company alias a.k.a Milliader conglomerate. Surely you are curious for and measuring whether these houses, and what are the facilities contained therein. This list was obtained from the usual forbes load ratings of the richest people in the world. Hopefully, these images can be used as motivation or as an inspiration for you to keep the spirit to work despite hot ass like exploding in order to raise money to redeem the future home of our own.

1. The Manor owner Cindy Aaron Spelling and Spelling
Home design style French castle palace was built by a married couple and Cindy Spelling Aaron Spelling in 1991. With an area of 4.6 hectares of land house located in Los Angeles California is equipped with luxurious amenities such as a beauty salon, rooms for spa, tennis and basketball courts, a private cinema and do not miss the 2 pools renam with a design empire in antiquity. It is estimated that the cost of building this house spent more than US $ 289 million.
2. The Pinnacle, Home Owners Tim and Edra Blixeth
For those of you who own a dream home nuanced Eskimo seemed appropriate to the design of the house belongs to Tim and Edra this Blixeth. Although located in Montana, United States known as the snow, but this house is warm because every room provided a heated fireplace. Although it only has 75 bedrooms A house is spelled out very strategic. At the front door of the house is a ski lift ride snow suspension travel. The interpretation of this home price is 255 million US $.
3. Hearst Mansion-owner William Randolph Hearst
The house Hearst Mansion, located in Beverly Hills, California was once used by President John F. Kennedy along with his wife as a place of their honeymoon. Variety of luxurious amenities are at home with an area of 285 hectares of land is like a night club, tennis court, 56 bedrooms, several swimming pools, a cinema, tennis courts, zoo, vineyards and golf courses. The house is uniquely designed with a giant tower-like Church of Santa Maria in Spain was built by a well-known print media entrepreneur named William Randolph Hearts. Construction of this house when it was first built in 1919-1947 to cost 185 million US $ and renovations and additions to the facility until now achieve cost 888 million US $.
4. Henley Mansion in Berkshire
Originally this house is one of the former Small castle belonged to the kingdom and the building wall is estimated to have lived 300 years. This house is owned by the Russian billionaire bought him when selling prices are still relatively low cost of 218 million US $. Located beside the River Thames with the background scenery is very beautiful, has two golf courses, a security system that is constantly awake, helipad, spa, and a private cinema in the home.

Trend Interior Minimalist will boom in the Year 2017

Turn of the year next to the new year, of course, there will be much change in trend. So even regarding trends in home interiors. Curious to know what kind of interior models, which again is a trend in the 2017's?
1. Motive and form in art deco style
The use of art deco is one option that you can try in the 2017's. Art deco style characterized by the use of geometric motifs and forms a honeycomb.
Selection of art deco in a minimalist house, will make your home look more artfully with a room that looked more graceful.
 2. nubby wool carpet
The use of nubby wool or other natural fibers similar trend is one especially for the carpet in the 2017's.
You can choose a neutral color to enhance the interior design of your home. For those of you who want to cause a dramatic impression, you can use a combination of two color rug with bold colors.
3. encaustic tilesThe use of tiles with intricate motifs have given so many colors that you can choose according to need. Encaustic tile itself is made of clay and instead made of glaze. This ceramic type also provide a focal point that looks beautiful and so natural.The use of encaustic tiles can be applied in the kitchen, or can accent wallSimilarly tiles in the bathroom. 
4. Pieces of objects of historical value
For you- you are fond of antiques and historic, then you can beautify the room of your house with these objects.Collecting antiques can be done by collecting souvenirs from the streets or can also be by looking at the flea market.If you require additional other artwork, you can order it specially at the local craftsmen. Application of antiques made the house habitable has a more impressive art.
5. The craftsman-made goods 
By using artisan-made goods, vintage items and goods manufacturers simple. You can combine sheepskin rugs mobolia and Morocco with the use of a coffee table.The idea of ​​beautifying homes this one will make the guests who visit your house impressed with the beautiful designs home interiors minimalis
6. The mineral materials 
Trend Design 2017 will increase its popularity is a mineral material. Geodes finely textured rocks and sticks to the transparent plastic, has become the trend in 2015, but the trend is now turning to the bowl with the basic ingredients pryte sparkling.In 2017, consumers are also more choose the rough stones that can be used as a door knob. As for the decoration material in the guest house and the bedroom, you can use a quartz rock.
7. Kitchen porcelain
In addition to a feast for the eyes with an attractive appearance in the living room, you should not forget your kitchen. In the year 2016, you can make a kitchen look attractive with a touch of bold color. For that, you should not be afraid of color remodel the kitchen by way of re-painted.
Another thing that should not be forgotten, is the design of the floor. Choose a floor made from porcelain to enhance the look of your home kitchen.
How does your model of minimalist interior, is in conformity with the various models of cool at the top? If there are more funds, certainly not hurt to follow the trend of booming above.
 

Interior Design Minimalist Can inspires

The house with a minimalist design, does not have a lot of wiggle room for the owner. Yet with a good arrangement of the minimalist home will look beautiful and liveable.Here are tips on minimalist interior design that you can apply to mempernyaman and make the house look more beautiful and attractive.
 
Minimalist Interior Design Tips 
1. Choose a certain theme 
Through the choice of theme, then you can focus more on the interior design. Besides the stage arrangement and selection of furniture will also be easier. To apply the theme, you can choose a theme per room or can also be a theme for the whole room.Selection of themes for the color or type of furniture that will be used should be tailored to the wishes of the residents. 
2. Spatial alternately 
To arrange the room to make it look more beautiful and attractive would be more difficult if done by ordinary people who do not understand how to design the house as well. In this case you can hire the services of a consultant to beautify the home state of the house.For better results and avoid a monotonous style of the house, then you can perform spatial turn alternately on each occasion. 
3. Select an efficient and functional furniture
In choosing the best furniture for your home, you should not just choose but also note the usefulness factor for the room. It would be better if you apply some multifunctional furniture so as to leave more room to move.
4. Remove any objects that are not functional 
Things that are not useful only will make your room look cramped and the family occupied for the excess goods. This is important to get rid of objects that are useless and only put only important thing in the room. 
5. Clean the walls of the display useless 
To organize wall to look more spacious and clean, you should get rid of the exhibits which if not used. Quite keep 1 or 2 ornament on the wall and make sure if the exhibits is a display which add to the beauty of space.Too much stuff on the floor or on the wall will only add to the impression messy house inhabited. 
6. Use furniture with beautiful designs
The use of artistic furniture is able to make the room habitable increasingly attractive and valuable art. Just use furniture with high aesthetic value and avoid using a lot of furniture.
7. Add the garnish in some corner of the room 
Although not very usefulness but with the pots and vases, it will be able to add accent the rooms were occupied. Make sure if a pot or vase of flowers that will be used in accordance with the theme of the room. 
8. Use soft colors
To create the interior design of the house look more beautiful and attractive, you should use soft colors and avoid the use of striking colors.Soft colors will give the impression that the room more comfortable. Striking color contrast is only used to evoke certain accent and try not to be too dominant.
9. Use the light as well as heating rooms were quite
Another thing to consider is to meet the needs of the room and adequate ventilation. Lack of ventilation and the lighting system will only make the space habitable seem cramped and claustrophobic.
10. Create a warehouse as a storage space
For objects that have never or rarely possible in life should be stored in the warehouse. This is done to give the impression of a neat inside the house.
Minimalist home or a big house even if the occupants slob, then the house would be far from being beautiful and charming. This is why is important for the residents to always clean his house.

Unique minimalist design and beautifull home

Want to build a house from scratch? But confused do not have an idea and want to follow the example of the model homes as what are the current trends. Who knows, some of these photos is a unique minimalist design the coolest house can be used as inspiration to create your dream home.

1. Transparent House in Japan
 
Built on a land area of ​​914 square feet, a famous architect Sou Fujimoto of Japan very unique design minimalist look of the house. Using a light metal frame foundation and all the sides of the building are 21 rooms made of transparent glass. The house is occupied with his family has been occupied since 2012 yesterday.Inspired from a tree house, in this place we do not need to shout to call someone, because each room / space already connected with advanced technologies that can listen to each other between the occupants of the other occupants. Starting from the roof, stairs and walls everything is transparent.Exciting is not the thought of a unique house like this, we could see other people in the next room was doing any activity. But the downside, people passing in front of the house can also see all the occupants of the house and the contents of her home.It also said the house named Tokyo's House NA is very economical electricity, because of daylight does not need to turn on the lights again. And for the evening is provided automatic curtains to cover the home atmosphere.
2. House Shoes
Already tired of staying at home that looks so-so only alias mainstream, making a rich old man from Pennsylvania asked for help from an architect named Mahlon N Haines house, so that he would make a shoe-shaped house.
Although the building area of the shoe house was nothing, but already there are three bedrooms, one kitchen, where cooking, small family room and two toilets located inside the room and outside the room.
3. Piano house in China
An architecture student minimalist house design department managed to put up a piano located in the city of Huainan, China in 2017 yesterday, the day before. Actually home is unique but cool this is not used for a private dwelling, but in the public interest, as a training ground music school art students.
Taking the concept of transparent violin-shaped house building at the front door. Whereas, in the building until the giant piano-shaped roofs. To enter the access we can cool homes via stairs or escalators glass shaped like a guitar string violin.
4. Pieree Cardin's Bubble House (Palace of Bubbles, France)
Bubble House or Palace / Home This bubble is in Theoule sur mer City of Cannes, France. Created by renowned French designer named Antti Lovag in 1989.
Early use of the palace are the bubble as a meeting place and debauchery of the bourgeois elite and elite socialites who came from Europe. But as time went on, Bubble House has changed its function as a place of tourist travel, a national festival and the venue for the annual celebration of the French people.
One thing that adds value plus "picture minimalist" bubble house is the corner of the room to witness the scenic beauty of the Mediterranean sea and harbor of ships Cannes very beautiful and amazing.
5. New Mexico's Spaceship House
Taking the concept of alien life. New Mexico's Spaceship House was built in 1983 by Prince named Bart Prince. Located in Albuquerque, Mexico all the interior and exterior of this elegant house is very unique for us to see it.
Starting from the living room, a studio and in his front yard there are several statues of giant dinosaurs. Mexico's own communities living adjacent to the unique house call as the Space Ship.
6. Everingham Rotating House
When viewing the first time Everingham Rotating house is like nothing unique at all, much like simple home design in general. But who thought that if we stayed in the house, will be made dizzy nutmeg barbie.
Because the home of Luke and Debbie Everingham creation that can rotate 360 degrees. It's all because at the foundation of the house planted two fruit machines technology of electric power of 500 watts and 32 outrigger wheels. Cool is not it? We can arrange at will, today and tomorrow will be brought where the direction of the house.
7. Hole 3 Hole Dimensions house House, Texas
 At the end of 2005, there is a unique building, dubbed as Hole House. Sightings Houle house is very similar to the future picture of the hall. Made by the famous sculptor Dan Havel and Dean Ruck. Officially the project of making three-dimensional hole house Hole House is called Inversion.
Initially just to exhibit their art alone. But people who live in Willard Street in Houston, Texas greatly admired. Until the exhibition project was completed not be dismantled and until now Hole House was used as a place to visit the local tourists. So unique we can enter the hall of the artificial time.
8. Cubic Houses
A Dutch architect named Piet Blog housing designing simple minimalist but with a very unique view. Based in Helmon and Rotterdam Netherlands. He built housing with a unique concept as the roof of urban trees, where every design house has a tilt angle up to 45 degrees, while the pole roofs cube-shaped box.
9. Crooked House
The luxurious house resembles a three level building is the work of an architect named Szotynscy Zalesk which was built in 2004. There are various places of pubs and restaurants are located at the three-story house level. This design idea itself is obtained from the fairytale illustrations of children who told of homes curve.
10. Houses Ripley, Believe it or NotIn accordance with the concept Believe it or Not belonging to Ripley. This house was intentional built in the shape of the building is very unique. It has been established since 2003 and is located in Ontario, Canada.To manufacture a unique minimalist house it was, Robert Leroy Ripley himself who designed it. Incidentally doi also known as the architect of the famous house apart like to do an exhibition about things that are strange and unique in the world.The first time you see it we may think the house ripley affected by the earthquake, because all parts of the house cracked and as if it were split.But there is something in it, according to Robert Leroy Ripley, such as a picture of his house due to the phenomenon of severe earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale have occurred in Canada in 1812. Companions that is a model example of minimalist homes unique was amazing. You are keen to make the house cool designs like the above?


7 Extraordinary tool in the Bathroom that Make Everything is So Easy

The bath is the most important activity. Hence bathroom with stuff in it need you think. Even molre from other rooms in your house. Starting from about cleanliness and comfort. tihis is including also the tools in it. This time we would love to know you 7 tools that can make your shower activity easier and is not boring. 

#1 Shower with LED lights that will illuminate your morning.
#2 Shower curtains that can tell you if there is new mail arrives. Cool!
#3 Shower filters which can add the content of vitamin C in the water that comes out. Let your health be maintained. How come? Can, because you absorb chlorine contained in water shower.
 #4 A place to put your feet. So you're not going to upset again when shaved legs.
# 5
Your time in the tub for their boring baseball again this bubble maker. If you possessed little sister at home, or children, they will feel happy.

 #6 Sandal could well cleaning, brushing and massaging the soles of your feet. Clean once so healthy.
#7 hower timer that will remind you to be completed and moved from a bathtub. You will be too late or oversleep baseball just because a soak.

Well, that's 7 tools that should be there in your bathroom. Guaranteed activity in the bathroom would be so much easier and fun.  

Here's How to Juggle Small Bedroom Feels So Wider

Your bedroom is small, but has a lot of stuff and wanted to have a bigger room? Dont be sad! You probably can not get really had a spacious room, unless you change the bedroom. But, there are many ways that your room is cute it could feel more spacious. Curious how to do? These are some of the easiest ways to make your room seemed greater.

# 1 Change your mattress
You have a small bedroom, do not put a large bed. You can replace a queen size bed with full size. Queen size bed takes up an area of 3 square meters, while the full-size only takes up 2.5 square meters.

#2
You shall keep clothes folded in the closet or drawer, the better you hanging clothes. Not only save space, you're also so easy to select and grab the clothes you want to wear.

# 3



 You can put the beds were hanged. How to do? Can! Now even more season! Not only can save space, but your bedroom so unique and baseball would be boring.

# 4

 You usually got a table. Now no need to use a table. You can make yourself a small table to put the ornaments hung room. It's going to be a really unique!

# 5
Heaadboard make your bed so nowhere to put books. In addition to giving the impression of classic and unique, baseball you need cabinets or desks to store books. Cool, right?

# 6
 Mirror! This method is the most classic, but still effective for you to apply. Mirror on the wall will make the room a more spacious look.

# 7
If you previously displaying paintings or other art objects in the wall, now we do not need anymore! Try to be more creative to make a hanger decorated with you alone. Well, you could be hanging hats, scarves, belts, necklaces and other accessories. In addition to saving space, the wall you become more artistic.

# 8
Throw away your desk! Ha ha. Because you can turn your bed at once so the table. ;)

# 9
Choose the color of the walls and bright colors for the bed, pillowcases, and blankets. It will leave a fresh impression and wider.

# 10
You still use a desk lamp? Now no need! Choose a chandelier. Now a lot, really, who sell chandelier with a model that is trendy.
Now you sad baseball anymore, right? Although it had a small room, which is important comfortable. And with the above trick, you just feel your room changed baseball became more widespread, but also decor was changed so much sweeter. Spending time in the room all day no longer make you bored. 

5 Bedrooms Comfortable Style It Make You linger in the Room

Besides the convenience and neatness of the bedrooms, there are other more important things. That style design! Make no mistake, this design is very influential at the mood, taste and mindset you, you know! So do not home when decorating the bedroom. For you who are still confused about designing your sleeping space is like, do not worry because Bintang.com ready to help.

Bed space that uses the floor, walls and doors made of wood not only provide comfort but will also give an impression of nature and cool. This design is perfect for you who live in the apartment. The key lies in the size of the futon (Japanese style mattress) is smaller than the room to move.


Make your love minimalist style, it adds a bright color in the black and white can also be memberkan life in the room. In addition the use of glass will give a broader impression of the actual size.
This one style can also be inspirasimu, who had a room slightly larger than the apartment. The white color on the wall will give the impression of more widely than the actual room size. Well, the floor made of wood will give the impression of cool.

 If possible, the location turned out to also have an influence in increasing comfortability. Select bedroom which has large windows overlooking the nature. Better yet, if the scenery is beautiful. As the design of this fabulous rooms, large windows directly overlooking the sea.
 Style apartments in the 1930s could also be an option. Minimalist style baseball is going to make you complicated. The key there is no balcony, and there are not many items in the room.
Now that he's a five bedroom design is extremely comfortable. Hopefully the above design can be inspirasimu for redecorating the bedroom. Which design do you most prefer?
 



Sunday, 22 January 2017

10 Ideas Decorate the house with Irit fee, under 5 USD!

Having a home that is neat and eye-catching is the dream of every homeowner. There are many ways to make the home more comfortable inhabited. One way to decorate the house. However, a lot of people who think decorating the house will have to spend to purchase additional materials or remodeling in some corners, even to have to hire an interior designer to beautify the home.

In fact, if you are sensitive and observant, decorate the house do not need a lot of capital. Utilizing the items that have been unused or recycling can also be done for home decoration materials. Home decorating ideas such as 10 below. You can use the items in your house, too, you know! If one must go out of capital, may not be up to Rp 50 thousand. Check this one, Gangs!

Glue the Post-it color on one wall of your room.
Create a world map pattern made of old newspapers. Paste in the living room wall.
Create 3-dimensional flowers of HVS.
Cover your desk or your studies with wrapping paper.
Create a chandelier from a plastic spoon.

 Curtain rod made of wood sticks painted.
Make decorating the walls of the former pictorial shirt stretched over a frame.
Take advantage of wrapping paper, or origami to make the curtain hanging in the room.
Make a hanger wall hanger disposable magazine.
Have an old magazines? Take advantage of the chair so mini. Put a couch cushion thin as the base. Tie the belt wear.